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Tuesday, August 30, 2011

Steve Jobs on His Life, Career and Illness: ‘Find What You Love’ | Daily Ticker - Yahoo! Finance

Steve Jobs on His Life, Career and Illness: 'Find What You Love'

By Rebecca Stropoli | Daily Ticker – Wed, Aug 24, 2011 8:11 PM EDT

This evening we got the news that Steve Jobs has stepped down from his post as Apple CEO after having been on medical leave since January. In a commencement speech given at Stanford University in 2005, he spoke about his life, his career and his diagnosis with pancreatic cancer. His words, spoken six years ago, resonate strongly tonight.
'You've got to find what you love,' Jobs says
This is a prepared text of the Commencement address delivered by Steve Jobs, CEO of Apple Computer and of Pixar Animation Studios, on June 12, 2005.
I am honored to be with you today at your commencement from one of the finest universities in the world. I never graduated from college. Truth be told, this is the closest I've ever gotten to a college graduation. Today I want to tell you three stories from my life. That's it. No big deal. Just three stories.
The first story is about connecting the dots.
I dropped out of Reed College after the first 6 months, but then stayed around as a drop-in for another 18 months or so before I really quit. So why did I drop out?
It started before I was born. My biological mother was a young, unwed college graduate student, and she decided to put me up for adoption. She felt very strongly that I should be adopted by college graduates, so everything was all set for me to be adopted at birth by a lawyer and his wife. Except that when I popped out they decided at the last minute that they really wanted a girl. So my parents, who were on a waiting list, got a call in the middle of the night asking: "We have an unexpected baby boy; do you want him?" They said: "Of course." My biological mother later found out that my mother had never graduated from college and that my father had never graduated from high school. She refused to sign the final adoption papers. She only relented a few months later when my parents promised that I would someday go to college.
And 17 years later I did go to college. But I naively chose a college that was almost as expensive as Stanford, and all of my working-class parents' savings were being spent on my college tuition. After six months, I couldn't see the value in it. I had no idea what I wanted to do with my life and no idea how college was going to help me figure it out. And here I was spending all of the money my parents had saved their entire life. So I decided to drop out and trust that it would all work out OK. It was pretty scary at the time, but looking back it was one of the best decisions I ever made. The minute I dropped out I could stop taking the required classes that didn't interest me, and begin dropping in on the ones that looked interesting.
It wasn't all romantic. I didn't have a dorm room, so I slept on the floor in friends' rooms, I returned coke bottles for the 5¢ deposits to buy food with, and I would walk the 7 miles across town every Sunday night to get one good meal a week at the Hare Krishna temple. I loved it. And much of what I stumbled into by following my curiosity and intuition turned out to be priceless later on. Let me give you one example:
Reed College at that time offered perhaps the best calligraphy instruction in the country. Throughout the campus every poster, every label on every drawer, was beautifully hand calligraphed. Because I had dropped out and didn't have to take the normal classes, I decided to take a calligraphy class to learn how to do this. I learned about serif and san serif typefaces, about varying the amount of space between different letter combinations, about what makes great typography great. It was beautiful, historical, artistically subtle in a way that science can't capture, and I found it fascinating.
None of this had even a hope of any practical application in my life. But ten years later, when we were designing the first Macintosh computer, it all came back to me. And we designed it all into the Mac. It was the first computer with beautiful typography. If I had never dropped in on that single course in college, the Mac would have never had multiple typefaces or proportionally spaced fonts. And since Windows just copied the Mac, it's likely that no personal computer would have them. If I had never dropped out, I would have never dropped in on this calligraphy class, and personal computers might not have the wonderful typography that they do. Of course it was impossible to connect the dots looking forward when I was in college. But it was very, very clear looking backwards ten years later.
Again, you can't connect the dots looking forward; you can only connect them looking backwards. So you have to trust that the dots will somehow connect in your future. You have to trust in something — your gut, destiny, life, karma, whatever. This approach has never let me down, and it has made all the difference in my life.
My second story is about love and loss.
I was lucky — I found what I loved to do early in life. Woz and I started Apple in my parents garage when I was 20. We worked hard, and in 10 years Apple had grown from just the two of us in a garage into a $2 billion company with over 4000 employees. We had just released our finest creation — the Macintosh — a year earlier, and I had just turned 30. And then I got fired. How can you get fired from a company you started? Well, as Apple grew we hired someone who I thought was very talented to run the company with me, and for the first year or so things went well. But then our visions of the future began to diverge and eventually we had a falling out. When we did, our Board of Directors sided with him. So at 30 I was out. And very publicly out. What had been the focus of my entire adult life was gone, and it was devastating.
I really didn't know what to do for a few months. I felt that I had let the previous generation of entrepreneurs down - that I had dropped the baton as it was being passed to me. I met with David Packard and Bob Noyce and tried to apologize for screwing up so badly. I was a very public failure, and I even thought about running away from the valley. But something slowly began to dawn on me — I still loved what I did. The turn of events at Apple had not changed that one bit. I had been rejected, but I was still in love. And so I decided to start over.
I didn't see it then, but it turned out that getting fired from Apple was the best thing that could have ever happened to me. The heaviness of being successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again, less sure about everything. It freed me to enter one of the most creative periods of my life.
During the next five years, I started a company named NeXT, another company named Pixar, and fell in love with an amazing woman who would become my wife. Pixar went on to create the worlds first computer animated feature film, Toy Story, and is now the most successful animation studio in the world. In a remarkable turn of events, Apple bought NeXT, I returned to Apple, and the technology we developed at NeXT is at the heart of Apple's current renaissance. And Laurene and I have a wonderful family together.
I'm pretty sure none of this would have happened if I hadn't been fired from Apple. It was awful tasting medicine, but I guess the patient needed it. Sometimes life hits you in the head with a brick. Don't lose faith. I'm convinced that the only thing that kept me going was that I loved what I did. You've got to find what you love. And that is as true for your work as it is for your lovers. Your work is going to fill a large part of your life, and the only way to be truly satisfied is to do what you believe is great work. And the only way to do great work is to love what you do. If you haven't found it yet, keep looking. Don't settle. As with all matters of the heart, you'll know when you find it. And, like any great relationship, it just gets better and better as the years roll on. So keep looking until you find it. Don't settle.
My third story is about death.
When I was 17, I read a quote that went something like: "If you live each day as if it was your last, someday you'll most certainly be right." It made an impression on me, and since then, for the past 33 years, I have looked in the mirror every morning and asked myself: "If today were the last day of my life, would I want to do what I am about to do today?" And whenever the answer has been "No" for too many days in a row, I know I need to change something.
Remembering that I'll be dead soon is the most important tool I've ever encountered to help me make the big choices in life. Because almost everything — all external expectations, all pride, all fear of embarrassment or failure - these things just fall away in the face of death, leaving only what is truly important. Remembering that you are going to die is the best way I know to avoid the trap of thinking you have something to lose. You are already naked. There is no reason not to follow your heart.
About a year ago I was diagnosed with cancer. I had a scan at 7:30 in the morning, and it clearly showed a tumor on my pancreas. I didn't even know what a pancreas was. The doctors told me this was almost certainly a type of cancer that is incurable, and that I should expect to live no longer than three to six months. My doctor advised me to go home and get my affairs in order, which is doctor's code for prepare to die. It means to try to tell your kids everything you thought you'd have the next 10 years to tell them in just a few months. It means to make sure everything is buttoned up so that it will be as easy as possible for your family. It means to say your goodbyes.
I lived with that diagnosis all day. Later that evening I had a biopsy, where they stuck an endoscope down my throat, through my stomach and into my intestines, put a needle into my pancreas and got a few cells from the tumor. I was sedated, but my wife, who was there, told me that when they viewed the cells under a microscope the doctors started crying because it turned out to be a very rare form of pancreatic cancer that is curable with surgery. I had the surgery and I'm fine now.
This was the closest I've been to facing death, and I hope it's the closest I get for a few more decades. Having lived through it, I can now say this to you with a bit more certainty than when death was a useful but purely intellectual concept:
No one wants to die. Even people who want to go to heaven don't want to die to get there. And yet death is the destination we all share. No one has ever escaped it. And that is as it should be, because Death is very likely the single best invention of Life. It is Life's change agent. It clears out the old to make way for the new. Right now the new is you, but someday not too long from now, you will gradually become the old and be cleared away. Sorry to be so dramatic, but it is quite true.
Your time is limited, so don't waste it living someone else's life. Don't be trapped by dogma — which is living with the results of other people's thinking. Don't let the noise of others' opinions drown out your own inner voice. And most important, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. They somehow already know what you truly want to become. Everything else is secondary.
When I was young, there was an amazing publication called The Whole Earth Catalog, which was one of the bibles of my generation. It was created by a fellow named Stewart Brand not far from here in Menlo Park, and he brought it to life with his poetic touch. This was in the late 1960's, before personal computers and desktop publishing, so it was all made with typewriters, scissors, and polaroid cameras. It was sort of like Google in paperback form, 35 years before Google came along: it was idealistic, and overflowing with neat tools and great notions.
Stewart and his team put out several issues of The Whole Earth Catalog, and then when it had run its course, they put out a final issue. It was the mid-1970s, and I was your age. On the back cover of their final issue was a photograph of an early morning country road, the kind you might find yourself hitchhiking on if you were so adventurous. Beneath it were the words: "Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish." It was their farewell message as they signed off. Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish. And I have always wished that for myself. And now, as you graduate to begin anew, I wish that for you.
Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish.
Thank you all very much.

7-Eleven Using Mobile to Drive In-Store Traffic

7-Eleven Using Mobile to Drive In-Store Traffic
Technology - Aug 29,2011

DALLAS -- 7-Eleven Inc. is getting "fresh" with customers via new mobile banner ads. According to Mobile Marketer, the convenience store chain is running mobile ads on Pandora's platform that are intended to promote its fresh products, help consumers find the nearest 7-Eleven locations and have customers engage more with the brand.

The advertisements read "7-Eleven. More in Store." When consumers click on an ad, they are redirected to a mobile landing page where they can find the closest location or learn more about the company's products such as its eight legend and superstars cups, limited-time only Reese's brownies or new fresh-cut fruit bowl.

The mobile ads also feature different interactive tabs that allow customers to learn more about Slurpee flavors, join the Slurpee Club, download the new Slurpee app, find out about rewards and connect to the c-store chain through social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter.

"Smartphone penetration continues to grow, and 7-Eleven Inc. has found that our customers heavily use their phones throughout the day to make decisions on where to purchase food, drinks and other items," Margaret Chabris, spokeswoman for 7-Eleven, told Mobile Marketer.

7-Eleven is not a newcomer when it comes to mobile. The operator, franchiser and licensor of 8,400 stores in the United States recently ran mobile promotions tying in the "Hangover Part II" and "Thor" movies.
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Sunday, August 28, 2011

The Nine Habits of Highly Healthy People

The Nine Habits of Highly Healthy People
by Jonny Bowden
For years, business and motivational gurus have known that there are basic habits that seem to predict professional success and excellence. Books like
"The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People", by motivational speaker and business guru Stephen Covey, PhD has sold over 15 million copies alone, to people hungry for the secrets of success.

We don't yet have the perfect formula for long life, happiness and physical health, but a little careful distillation of the massive amount of research on health and longevity reveals that cultivating nine basic habits will significantly increase the odds of your living long, well and happily, in a robust, healthy, weight-appropriate body.

Eat your vegetables. No kidding. And I'm talking at least 9 servings a day.. Unless you're following the most stringent first stage of the Atkins Diet, you should be able to consume 60-120 grams of carbs a day (depending on your weight and exercise level), and you'd have to eat a stockyard full of spinach to get to that amount. Every major study of long-lived, healthy people shows that they eat a ton of plant foods. Nothing delivers antioxidants, fiber, flavonoids, indoles, and the entire pharmacopia of disease fighting phytochemicals like stuff that grows.
Eat fish and/or take fish oil. The Omega-3's found in cold-water fish like salmon deserve the title of "wellness molecule of the century". They lower the risk of heart disease, they lower blood pressure, they improve mood and they're good for the brain. And if you're pregnant, they may make your kid smarter!
Connect. And I'm not talking about the internet. In virtually every study of people who are healthy and happy into their 9th and 10th decade, social connections are one of the "prime movers" in their life. Whether church, family, volunteer work or community, finding something you care about that's bigger than you that you can connect with and that involves other people (or animals) will extend your life, increase your energy, and make you happier. Only always.
Get some sun. At least 10-15 minutes three times a week. Interestingly, a recent study of four places in the globe where people lived the longest and were the healthiest noted that all four places were in sunny climates. Sun improves your mood and boosts levels of cancer-fighting, performance-enhancing, bone-strengthening vitamin D, a vitamin most people don't get nearly enough of.
Sleep Well. If you're low in energy, gaining weight, grumpy and looking haggard, guess what?- chances are you're not sleeping nearly long enough nor well enough. By sleeping "well", I mean uninterrupted sleep, in the dark, without the television on, in a relaxing environment. Nothing nourishes, replenishes and restarts the system like 7-9 hours sleep. Hint: start by going to bed an hour early. And if you've got a computer in the bedroom, banish it.
Exercise every day. Forget this 20 minutes three times a week stuff. Long lived people are doing things like farm chores at 4:30 in the morning! Our Paleolithic ancestors traveled an average of 20 miles per day. Our bodies were designed to move on a regular basis. New studies show that merely 30 minutes a day of walking not only reduces the risk of most serious diseases, but can even grow new brain cells!
Practice Gratitude. By making a list of things you're grateful for, you focus the brain on positive energy. Gratitude is incompatable with anger and stress. Practice using your under-utilized "right brain" and spread some love. Focusing on what you're grateful for- even for five minutes a day- has the added benefit of being one of the best stress-reduction techniques on the planet.
Drink red wine or eat grapes. The resveratrol in dark grapes is being studied for its effect on extending life, which it seems to do for almost every species studied. (So does eating about 1/3 less food, by the way.) If you've got a problem with alcohol, you can get resveratrol from grapes, peanuts or supplements. (And if you're a woman, and you choose the alcohol option, make sure you're getting folic acid every day.)
Get the sugar out. The number one enemy of vitality, health and longevity is not fat, it's sugar. Sugar's effect on hormones, moods, immunity, weight and possibly even cancer cells is enormous, and it's all negative. To the extent that you can remove it from your diet, you will be adding years to your life and life to your years.

This list may not be perfect and it may not be complete, but it's a start. As my dear grandmother used to say, "Couldn't hurt". Not one of these "habits" will hurt you, all will benefit you, and some may make the difference between life and death.

And it's never too late to start cultivating them.

Enjoy the journey!

Jonny Bowden, PhD, CNS is the author of the Poliquin Manual for Nutrition. He's a board certified nutritionist, a nationally known expert on weight loss, health and nutrition, and the best-selling author of 8 books including "The 150 Healthiest Foods on Earth". Visit him at

Saturday, August 27, 2011

H.P.'s Transition Anything but


For Seamless Transitions at the Top, Don't Consult H.P.

Ryan Anson/Bloomberg News
Hewlett-Packard's board hired Léo Apotheker, the former chief executive of the German software giant SAP, as H.P.'s new chief executive, even though SAP had declined to renew Mr. Apotheker's contract after just seven months in the top position.
Published: August 27, 2011
How much does a chief executive really matter at a multibillion-dollar technology company? Apple's employees, customers, shareholders, board and Steve Jobs's successor, Tim Cook, must hope the answer turns out to be a lot different than at the world's largest computer company, neighboring Hewlett-Packard.
Just a year ago, Mark Hurd, H.P.'s chief executive, was forced to resign in the midst of allegations of sexual harassment and expense account irregularities, many details of which remain shrouded in secrecy. (The board concluded the sexual harassment claim was unfounded, but that Mr. Hurd's lack of candor had cost him its confidence.) The vote to demand his resignation was unanimous, although the board was sharply divided, especially over how to handle his departure and seek a new C.E.O. But H.P. was so big, so dominant in most of its markets, and so profitable that Mr. Hurd was dispensable, according to people familiar with the board's reasoning. "We don't need you," one board member bluntly told Mr. Hurd, or words to that effect.
So how has Hewlett-Packard fared under new leadership?
On Aug. 18, H.P. announced simultaneously that it was exploring "strategic alternatives" and might sell its dominant personal computer business, which accounts for roughly a third of the company's revenue; that it was scrapping its new, much ballyhooed TouchPad tablet computer; and that it was acquiring a British software concern, Autonomy, for $10.3 billion, a steep 11 times revenue. The stock plunged 20 percent to $23.60 a share. When Mr. Hurd resigned, it was just under $46, so the one-year decline amounted to 49 percent. (The Standard & Poor's 500-stock index gained about 3 percent over the same period.)
"I didn't know there was such a thing as corporate suicide, but now we know that there is," a former H.P. director, the venture capitalist Tom Perkins, told me this week. "It's just astonishing."
"H.P. was the epicenter of Silicon Valley, geographically, culturally and historically," an executive at another technology concern said. "Is there any analogy for an institution so respected that has fallen so far so fast? I can't think of one."
No one claims that Mr. Hurd, now president of Oracle, is another Steve Jobs. His critics have portrayed him as a glorified chief operating officer who ruthlessly cut costs and starved innovation. Still, there's no denying the results during the six years he led H.P.: pro forma earnings leaped 242 percent on a 57 percent gain in revenue (to $120.4 billion); H.P.'s stock price rose 130 percent, to over $45 a share; free cash flow surged 138 percent and operating margins doubled. Forbes magazine put him on its cover in April 2010 with the headline: "He Wants It All."
To replace Mr. Hurd, H.P.'s board hired Léo Apotheker, the former chief executive of the German software giant SAP, even though SAP had declined to renew Mr. Apotheker's contract after just seven months in the top position and he was linked to a software theft scandal that cost SAP a $1.3 billion damages award (he has denied any direct involvement). Nor, as a software executive, did he have much experience with hardware, especially the printers and servers at the core of H.P.'s franchise.
On Jan. 20 this year, H.P. announced the resignations of four directors, two of whom had initially supported Mr. Hurd during board deliberations and resisted his immediate ouster, according to people with knowledge of the decision. Mr. Apotheker served on a committee that proposed the five new directors to replace them, prompting sharp criticism from the shareholder watchdog Institutional Shareholder Services, which said H.P. had violated its own rules in allowing its chief executive to play a role in choosing board members who are supposed to be independent. (H.P.'s chairman, Ray Lane, denied any violation of rules, and told Bloomberg News that the new board members "aren't buddies of Apotheker," adding that "because Léo and I know the industry, it would be hard to pick any name we don't know." An H.P. spokeswoman said that the company drew praise from many corporate governance experts for shaking up the board.)
After taking time to study H.P.'s operations, Mr. Apotheker hosted a three-day conference, "HP Summit 2011," beginning March 14 at the Yerba Buena Center for the Arts in San Francisco, a venue long associated with dazzling new product announcements from Apple. His presentation emphasized cloud computing and software, including WebOS, the highly regarded operating system H.P. gained when it acquired Palm Inc. under Mr. Hurd. Mr. Apotheker revealed that WebOS would be the future operating system in all the company's computers and said that H.P. would be shipping 100 million devices using it. He said curiously little about H.P.'s vaunted printer or server divisions, which accounted for the bulk of the company's profits.
Under Mr. Hurd, H.P. had been developing a tablet to compete with Apple's popular iPad, and had at least two prototypes in development, one using Google's Android operating system and the other Microsoft Windows Phone. H.P. didn't want to alienate a big customer like Microsoft by competing on operating systems, but it needed an Android product because of the large number of applications the system supports. (H.P.'s Slate tablet, aimed at business customers, uses Windows.)
Under Mr. Apotheker, H.P. pushed forward with a new consumer tablet, the TouchPad, which would use H.P.'s own WebOS. But WebOS lacked the thousands of apps already developed for competing operating systems like Android. As one software executive put it: "For 30 years, the economics of software have been the same: your platform is only as successful as the quantity and quality of applications that run on top of it.
"So Léo comes in. He's not a consumer guy. He says, 'we're going to build an integrated device and go head to head with Steve Jobs.' I mean, are you kidding?"
But in press interviews and at The Wall Street Journal's "All Things D" conference this past June, Mr. Apotheker vowed that the TouchPad would be "perfect."
Meanwhile, H.P. missed earnings estimates in February, then lowered them in May. Last week it beat third-quarter estimates by a penny a share, but again lowered guidance for the next quarter. Even more stunning than the latest earnings was last week's abrupt shift in strategy. The TouchPad made its debut July 1. After only 48 days on the market, Mr. Apotheker announced that H.P. was abandoning it because of poor sales and would no longer support WebOS hardware. So much for the 100 million devices and the WebOS strategy Mr. Apotheker had trumpeted in March.
Even more startling may have been H.P.'s decision to explore "strategic alternatives" for its PC division. While it said it might consider a spinoff or sale, it didn't announce a buyer or a firm plan of action, leaving personal computer employees to ponder an uncertain fate and investors scratching their heads as to why the company seemed to be going out of its way to publicize the move to competitors. (The H.P. spokeswoman said the company was simply trying to be transparent and emphasized that it might decide to keep the PC division after all.)
Apart from the many synergies (including cost advantages) that might be lost if H.P. abandoned the PC division, the move would seem to undo years of strategy. The status of the PC division had been under constant review during the Hurd regime. But as one former H.P. executive told me, "We considered getting rid of PCs - for about two seconds." It's true that the PC business has lower margins - currently 5.8 percent compared with the rest of the company's average of 11 percent. But given H.P.'s sales and marketing channels, the huge PC division was considered the foundation that supported servers, storage, software and eventually services, enabling H.P. to compete across the $150 billion infrastructure market as the world's largest computer company.
And then there was the company's announcement it was acquiring the British software concern Autonomy, which, along with the other initiatives, would "fundamentally transform the company," as H.P.'s news release put it. "Autonomy had been shopped everywhere," another executive told me, including to H.P. under Mr. Hurd. "No one would pay 11 times revenue."
A. M. Sacconaghi Jr., Bernstein Research's senior analyst, said this week: "It's a fantastically high price. It's a very poor capital allocation decision. From our perspective, it's value-destroying."
To many, the acquisition suggested that Mr. Apotheker and H.P.'s board were focusing primarily on software, going head-to-head with the giants Oracle and SAP, while ignoring the company's traditional strengths. "It was as if Alan Mulally left Boeing to join Ford as C.E.O., and announced six months later that Ford would be making airplanes," said another software executive. (The H.P. spokeswoman said this was unfair. "We said in March we were trying to emphasize our strengths in higher-growth, higher-margin businesses, like enterprise servers and software," she said.)
With H.P. stock mired at $25 this week, some analysts argue things can only improve. "I still say it's undervalued," Mr. Sacconaghi said. "It's not rotten at the core. It's in a series of businesses with strong competitive positions albeit in slow-growth markets. It's the single cheapest technology stock in the S.& P. 500. At some point something has to go right: improved performance, successful spinouts or a change in leadership."
A year ago, in an e-mail to The Times after Mr. Hurd's ouster, Oracle's chief executive, Larry Ellison (and a tennis buddy of Mr. Hurd), wrote, "The H.P. board just made the worst personnel decision since the idiots on the Apple board fired Steve Jobs many years ago. That decision nearly destroyed Apple and would have if Steve hadn't come back and saved them."
Most took this as hyperbole from the famously outspoken Mr. Ellison. Now, many aren't so sure.
In Tim Cook, Apple may have an ideally qualified successor, one who will generate none of the controversy Mr. Apotheker has brought to H.P. But if Apple's board and investors feel that Apple is so strong that Mr. Jobs is easily replaceable, they should call their neighbors in Palo Alto.

Friday, August 26, 2011

Analysis: History shows iconic CEOs tough act to follow

History shows iconic CEOs tough act to follow
Fri, Aug 26 08:30 AM EDT

By Bill Rigby

SEATTLE (Reuters) - How does a company recover from the loss of an iconic leader like Steve Jobs at Apple Inc (AAPL.O)?

Sometimes, it doesn't.

Sony Corp (6758.T) has never regained the dominance in consumer electronics it built under co-founder Akio Morita. Microsoft Corp's (MSFT.O) stock price hasn't budged in the decade since Bill Gates stepped down as CEO.

The jury is still out on Jeff Immelt's stewardship of General Electric (GE.N) after taking over from legendary boss Jack Welch.

The question has vexed Apple shareholders since Jobs resigned as CEO on Wednesday.

While he will stay on as chairman, investors are parsing how much of Apple's success was due to Jobs' day-to-day leadership, and how much of his approach has become part of the fabric of the company, ensuring future success.

"Every major company survives the passing of the founder," said Peter Cappelli, Professor of Management at The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania. "But Jobs seems to have played a particularly unusual role in the company, actively making the final decisions on a lot of the innovations. The question is whether the company can keep operating like that with a different CEO."

History shows that is a tricky proposition. Iconic, hands-on leaders like Jobs are by definition irreplaceable, and companies need a plan for surviving without them, experts said.

"You're not going to find another Steve Jobs," said Charles Elson, law professor and corporate governance expert at the University of Delaware. "The key for a board is that the company itself is perpetual and human beings are mortal. They come and go. You have to always prepare for the fact that someone is not going to be there because the company lives on."


A major risk is trying to replicate the iconic CEO. Sometimes a complete change of personality and skills is called for.

"Sam Walton at Wal-Mart (WMT.N) had a famously large personality and charisma, so he tried to groom a successor that lacked that," said Michael Carrier, a professor at Rutgers School of Law in New Jersey, who has written extensively on innovation. "He showed that it didn't matter, you could still have a very successful Wal-Mart."

Instilling a culture over the years -- rather than projecting personality -- is key to successful evolution, said Bruce Avolio, Professor of Management at the University of Washington's Foster School Business in Seattle.

"A lot is often done before these events happen for companies to remain successful -- building the bench strength of leadership over the years," he said. "One thing we learn is the values of founders often become part of the fabric of the way the organization operates, and from what I can tell that is true of Apple."

Often the people who follow these charismatic founders are not necessarily charismatic themselves, he added. They tend to focus on organizing the next stage of the company's development rather than reinventing it.

The methodical Immelt may fall into that category. He is regarded as an able successor to the more fiery Welch at GE, even though the company's share price is still less than half what it was when he took over in 2001.

Apple's new CEO Tim Cook, an understated leader without Jobs knack for drama, may also follow that approach, and is not expected to turn himself into an imitation of Jobs.

The opposite risk is that Apple may come to miss Jobs' tireless need to question and reinvent.

That -- along with the implosion of Japan' economy -- was a major reason for the stagnation of Sony in the late stages of the reign of co-founder Morita, who stepped down in 1994, some industry watchers believe.

"There's a sense that Sony became a different company afterwards," Wharton's Cappelli said. "It started to miss out on innovations. It's not clear that's inevitable, but it's clear they didn't do so well."

Conservative Japanese culture may have compounded the problem.

"There may have been a resistance to challenging the things that he (Morita) put in place because it would have been seen as disrespectful," University of Washington's Avolio said. "Though I don't think that's the case at Apple."


Microsoft may be suffering a similar malady since Gates handed over the CEO job to Steve Ballmer in 2000, and gave up day-to-day involvement in the company in 2008 -- although he remains the chairman.

"When you are in such a dominant position in a market, it's very difficult for folks in those organizations to challenge and redirect in any significant way," Avolio said. "Microsoft still has talented people, but perhaps it hasn't really challenged the fundamental assumptions about the businesses that have been their success."

Some argue that the risk of betting on an Apple without Jobs may be less risky than an Apple with him making the decisions.

"Jobs bet the farm several times and won each time," Cappelli said. "Is this a guy who could have kept doing this forever? Or would one of these bets have failed? In which case the company would have done worse than a Sony? It's hard to know."

With or without iconic leaders, companies go through stages, and the best they can do is ensure some kind of continuity of approach, experts agreed.

"What was good a few years back may not be necessary going forward," University of Delaware's Elson said. "That's why you want a board of directors that is independent of management and objective, to evaluate the direction the company needs to take."

(Reporting by Bill Rigby; Editing by Derek Caney)
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DId You Pack Your Parachute? Video Clip

Steve Jobs and Apple: A Life

On his last day as CEO, Steve Jobs announced that "Apple's brightest and most innovative days are ahead of it." That may be, but with the passing of the torch to former COO Tim Cook, it's safe to say that an era is over.

In the following gallery, BNET's Wired In blogger Erik Sherman looks at the iconic leader and the indelible mark he left on Apple -- and the world -- over the years.

Jobs Meets Woz

In 1971, Steve Jobs meets genius engineer Steve Wozniak, who had dropped out of college to work for Hewlett-Packard. Jobs was outgoing; Wozniak was painfully shy. But the two had plenty in common -- they both learned about electronics from their fathers and loved pulling pranks.
Their first business venture, in fact, was selling illegal blue boxes, which let people make free long-distance telephone calls. Jobs would later look back at the "magical" experience of teenagers building a device from $100 worth of parts that could control massive telephone networks.
"Experiences like that taught us the power of ideas," he said in a video interview for the documentary, Silicon Valley: A 100 Year Renaissance. "If we hadn't have made blue boxes, there would have been no Apple."

Birth of a Legend

The fledgling Apple needed money fast. Jobs sold his Volkswagen bus, and Wozniak his programmable calculator, raising $1,300 to pay for parts. They introduced the Apple I on April Fools Day in 1976; shortly thereafter, a local computer dealer placed a $50,000 order for 100 units.
Buying parts on credit gave the pair a month to pay. Jobs talked family and friends into helping them build the products. They delivered, got a check, and then paid off the parts suppliers with one day to spare.
Jobs and Wozniak later met Armas Clifford (Mike) Markkula, a former Fairchild Semiconductor and Intel manager who helped them write a business plan, invested $92,000 of his own money, and secured a $250,000 credit line. That gave Apple the necessary capital for its first hit product.

The Apple II Cometh

With money in the bank, Apple Computer filed incorporation papers on January 3, 1977. Markkula insisted on seasoned management and brought in Michael Scott as the company's first CEO. But the big development was a new product Wozniak had slaved over: the Apple II. With color graphics, an attractive plastic case, built-in keyboard, and easy-to-understand manuals, the Apple II was a revolution in design: a fully-working integrated computer that looked like a consumer product.
Realizing that pre-packaged software would be key to selling computers for non-techies, Jobs beat the bushes for programmers who would start creating applications. (There would eventually be more than 15,000 software titles for the Apple II.) He also focused on marketing and PR. Apple became the first personal computer company to run ads in consumer magazines. Apple sold nearly six million Apple II computers over the next 15 years.

Jobs Sees the Future

In 1979, Jobs visited Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center, better known as PARC, a legendary cauldron of digital creativity. Three developments -- graphical user interfaces, object-oriented computing, and computer networking -- convinced Jobs he'd just seen the future of computing. He made a deal with Xerox, allowing the company to invest $1 million in a still-private Apple in return for allowing Apple engineers to take two guided tours of the PARC technology. Xerox would live to regret that deal.

Apple Goes Public

By 1980, Apple was a $118 million company and had grown to 1,000 employees. That December it went public in the biggest IPO since Ford Motor Company in 1954. By the end of the day, Apple had a market cap of nearly $1.8 billion, and Jobs was rich.
"I was worth over $1 million when I was 23," Jobs would later say in a video interview, "and over $10 million when I was 24 and over $100 million when I was 25. And it wasn't that important because I never did it for the money."

The Lisa

One year later, Jobs was in a jam. Apple had taken the lessons of PARC turned them into the Lisa, a business computer named for Jobs' daughter (although Apple later came up with the face-saving acronym "Local Integrated Software Architecture"). Jobs had wanted to run the Lisa project, but his earlier failure on the the Apple III -- a disaster that resulted in a massive product recall and redesign -- led CEO Scott to turn him down. Jobs brooded for few months, but pulled himself out of his funk via a new skunkworks project that would redefine the company.

The Secret Macintosh

The Apple II had sold millions of units, but the $10,000 Lisa limped along, with only 100,000 sold in the space of two years. Meanwhile, the IBM PC had emerged as the new king of the personal-computer market. It was a utilitarian computer with no mouse, no graphical interface and a nerdy Microsoft operating system that catered to business users -- in short, just about everything that Jobs hated.
Inside Apple, an employee named Jef Raskin had been pushing a computer he called the Macintosh, a device that would be as simple to use as a kitchen appliance. Jobs seized control of the project and added a mouse and graphic interface, just like he'd seen at PARC.
Jobs took young brilliant engineers off other projects -- literally pulling a computer away from one of them. The group worked in a remote pressure-cooker of a building, where Jobs frequently threw people's work back at them until it was perfect. The team ran up a pirate flag on the roof. This wasn't going to be corporate business as usual. But someone had to tend to corporate business, and that would lead to Jobs' downfall.

Jobs Recruits Sculley

Apple's management, meanwhile, was in turmoil. Mike Markkula had served as CEO after replacing Michael Scott, but by 1983 was ready to retire. Jobs wanted the top job, but Markkula didn't trust his mercurial temperament. What the company needed was someone with experience, who would know how to handle employees and the financial markets.
Markkula wanted someone who understood consumer business, and that's what he thought he'd found in Pepsi vice president John Sculley -- the youngest head of marketing the soda company ever ever seen. Sculley had pioneered consumer research studies and campaigns like the famous Pepsi Challenge, which aimed to show that people preferred Pepsi to Coke. Offered the Apple job, Sculley was still on the fence. Jobs flew to New York, stared at Sculley and said, "Do you want to sell sugar water for the rest of your life, or do you want to come with me and change the world?" It was one of the best pitches Jobs would ever make -- and also one of his biggest mistakes.

A Single Ad Changes the World

Jobs planned a big splash for the Macintosh. In 1983, he commissioned Ridley Scott to produce an eerie Orwellian television ad in which lines of people stand watching Big Brother as a lone woman runs through their ranks, swinging a hammer and ultimately smashing the giant television screen. The commercial, which ran during Super Bowl XVIII, closed with the words: "On January 24th, Apple Computer will introduce Macintosh. And you'll see why 1984 won't be like '1984.'"
But the ad almost never made it on the air. Apple's board hated it and wanted to sell back the air time. The only reason it ran, in fact, was that Jobs had already converted Apple's sales force. He'd screened it for them the previous fall during the company's annual sales meeting. On a giant dark stage, a young Steve Jobs painted a picture of an industry too long dominated by IBM, which wanted to destroy Apple and have the computer market all to itself. The commercial ran, and before it even ended, the audience had exploded in cheers and applause.

Jobs Gets the Boot

The Macintosh was anything but an immediate hit. Its impressive user interface sucked up too much of the machine's resources, and there was little too little software available. Unsold Macs piled up in the company's warehouse following a dismal 1984 holiday season. Sales were so bad that the company laid off a fifth of its workforce, closed 3 of its 6 manufacturing plants and reported its first quarterly loss.
Worst of all, Sculley blamed Jobs for the disaster and went to the board to demand his removal as a vice president and general manager of the Macintosh group. Sculley wanted Jobs to be a chairman of the board and a public face of the company, not someone who could cause operational problems. Jobs got word and tried to get Sculley ousted instead. A majority backed the Man from Pepsi and by May, Jobs was nothing but a figurehead.
"What can I say?" he would say later. "I hired the wrong guy. And he destroyed everything I had spent ten years working for, starting with me." Jobs left in September. Around the same time, some software vendors began to understand what was possible with the Mac and wrote the first desktop publishing packages, harbingers of a wave of applications that would make Macs a must-have for many creative types. But Jobs would no longer be at Apple to appreciate it -- or to take credit.

Into the Wilderness

When Jobs walked away from Apple, he took a half dozen people with him to start a rival computer company. NeXT used everything Jobs had seen at Xerox PARC, just taken to the next level. The radical NeXT cube aimed to revolutionize computing on both the software and hardware fronts. While the machines themselves flopped, the NeXT software continued to make inroads among the technically minded. Jobs wanted to build the first computer for the 1990s, and in a way he did: Tim Berners-Lee wrote the first Web browser in 1990 on a NeXT. But the real importance of NeXT would be as a foundation for future Macs, iPhones, and iPads.

Jobs Readies for His Close-Up

When Jobs left Apple, he sold his shares of the company and became an instant millionaire. In 1986, he bought the computer graphics division of Lucasfilm for $10 million and called it Pixar. Working with genius artists and engineers, he created a new era in animation. Pixar made Luxo Jr., a charming short that created compelling characters out of computer-animated desk lamps.
To Jobs, Pixar represented something like the fusion of cutting-edge technology and the human soul -- an effort to create an entirely new, and yet still entirely satisfying, storytelling aesthetic using the new tools that technology had made available. The results: A string of hit films such as Toy Story, Monsters, Inc. and Finding Nemo.
These was only possible because Jobs kept the company financially afloat for years as it honed its skills and improved its tools -- solely because he believed Pixar could change the world of entertainment. The experience revolutionized his view of business.
"When these films take four years to make and they last for 60 or 100 years, you start to develop a longer focal length point of view than just the next six months," Jobs said on the Charlie Rose show in 1996. In 1995, the company went public in the biggest IPO of the year, beating out Netscape and making Jobs a billionaire. Ten years later, Jobs sold Pixar to Disney for $7.4 billion in stock, making him Disney's biggest shareholder and effectively killing off Disney's own storied hand-drawn animation shop.

The Prodigal Son Returns

In Jobs' absence, PCs had trounced the Mac. Apple suffered repeated reorganizations and layoffs; the board forced out Sculley, then sacked his replacement. Executives fled. In the mid-1990s, Microsoft introduced Windows 95, which finally gave PCs rough graphical-interface parity with the Mac.
Desperate, the board agreed to buy NeXT for $420 million -- its software would become the foundation of the Mac's new operating system -- and asked Jobs to return. Shortly after rejoining his beloved Apple, Jobs spoke to Apple employees about restoring the company's tarnished brand.
"The way to do that is not to talk about speeds and feeds," he said at the time. "It's not to talk about why we're better than Windows.... Our customers want to know, who is Apple? What is it that we stand for? ... And what we're about isn't making boxes for people to get their jobs done, although we do that well. Apple is about something more than that.... We believe that people with passion can change the world for the better." Then he announced the Think Different campaign and its first salvo, a tribute to the people who change the world. Apple was about to turn the world upside down again. And again. And again.

Partner in Design

During Jobs' absence, Apple had hired Jonathan Ive, a brilliant industrial designer from England. Usually working in a black t-shirt and jeans, he exhibited the same obsession for perfection that Jobs had; when studying design, he built 100 models for his final project instead of the typical half a dozen. Ive toiled in obscurity until Jobs saw his work and put him in charge of industrial design.
"Everyone says, 'I want to make a great product,' or 'I want to make a great movie,' or whatever they're doing, so there's no difference there," Jobs would say later. "There's a big difference in the outcomes." The first project that Ive and his team completed would make computers transparent to consumers -- literally.

Behold the iMac

For almost 20 years, most personal computers had the same boring, boxy appearance. That changed with the iMac in 1998, the first project for Ive and his group. The iMac, with its tinted and yet translucent body, threw out every computer design convention. It was eye candy, literally -- the computer re-envisioned as a gumdrop. More than two million sold in the first year. Apple was back, and Jobs and the iMac hit the cover of Time.
"We're willing to throw something away because it's not great and try again when all of the pressures of commerce are at your back saying, 'No, you can't do that,'" Jobs later said.

A Store of Their Own

Apple struggled with its presence in retail stores. Products were buried in a wasteland of personal computers, with clerks who didn't care if someone bought a Mac or a Windows PC. "Buying a car is no longer the worst purchasing experience," Jobs said. "Buying a computer is now No. 1."
Jobs decided that his company needed its own retail chain, locations that would promote Apple's brand and let the products seduce future customers. The stores were spacious to mirror the size of the corporate brand and to provide an uncluttered experience. Although some observers thought the move was smart, popular wisdom said that Jobs had "two years before they're turning out the lights on a very painful and expensive mistake," as one retail expert put it.
So much for popular wisdom. Apple retail stores have become the single most financially successful retail operation on the planet, putting even luxury goods and name-brand jewelry stores to shame. But you can understand why so many people wrote off the strategy. The numbers didn't seem to add up. How would a store sell enough computers when Apple's market share had dropped so low? Jobs was about to unwrap his answer.

The Music Man

Jobs wanted to drive up Mac sales by making the device a digital hub for everything else a consumer might want to do, and music was a natural place to start. People traded digital music on services like Napster, but MP3 players were clunky and unpopular. The space was ripe for innovation.
So Apple licensed music player software and then had a top programmer turn it into iTunes, which Jobs introduced in Jan. 2001. Then a team headed by NeXT alumnus Jon Rubinstein pulled together internal and external resources to create the iPod, which Jobs wanted in stores by the fall. He insisted on effortless integration between the iPod and iTunes, which was the magic of the system. The result: Within a few years, Apple owned the portable digital music player market.

Tunes on the Internet

The iPod, however, would have been nothing without anything (legal) to play on it. On that front, Jobs found a promising but reluctant partner in the music industry, which was frightened out of its wits by online file sharing and falling album sales.
Jobs wanted an online store so customers could get songs for their iPods easily and cheaply. But music labels were scared that selling single cuts at a 99 cents, rather albums for 10 to 15 times at much, would be certain financial ruin. So Jobs pointed out that iPods had to be used with Macs, which had far less than 10 percent market share. There would be 200,000 tracks. How big could it get?
Ahem. A week after the iTunes Store opened, customers had already bought a million songs. Six months later, the labels let Jobs sell to Windows users as well. Apple had transformed how people bought music.

An Echo of Mortality

The iPod and iTunes were major successes. But for Jobs, that faded in importance when he was diagnosed with a rare type of pancreatic tumor. He would spend the next nine months in treatment, followed by surgery in July 2004.
True to form, Jobs was as secretive about his personal affairs as he'd long been about business. After consulting with lawyers, the company decided not to release any information to investors. Almost no one knew he had cancer until he disclosed it in an Aug. 1 email to Apple's employees as he was starting his recuperation. Many corporate governance experts criticized the decision.
Jobs was lucky in a sense -- his condition was one of the most treatable types of pancreatic cancer, which generally kills patients quickly. He expected to return to work in September, but wouldn't appear publicly until October. Behind the scenes, another revolution was simmering. Jobs was about to turn the mobile-phone industry upside down.

It's for You, Steve

With the iPod, Apple was already turning itself into a consumer products and services company. Why not build a phone? In 2004, Apple partnered with Motorola to bring iTunes software and music to mobile phones. Over the next two years, trademark and patent applications suggested Apple would release its own device -- and that it would be called the iPhone.
In January 2007, Jobs announced the iPhone at the MacWorld conference. It made phone calls, sure -- but it was also a real computer that could run software and surf the Web. A touch screen interface eliminated the tiny confusing buttons typical of wireless phones and set the standard for the industry.
Jobs would also upend the balance of power between handset manufacturers and wireless carriers. Apple would control the design, not AT&T, meaning that for the first time, a phone would sell a carrier. The iPhone turned into the profit engine that ran Apple. On the same day as the iPhone announcement, Apple would drop the "computer" from its name and become Apple Inc., cementing its new status as a consumer powerhouse.

Many Apps to Rule Them All

The iPhone was neither the first handheld computer nor the first cellphone that could run programs -- but it was the first that made it easy for people to find and use the programs they wanted, creating a vibrant new computing ecosystem in the process. Where the slow, stodgy cellphone carriers had previously limited users to a fixed set of often-balky programs, Apple let the world's programmers create native applications for the iPhone. Jobs bypassed the carriers and let developers sell through Apple, keeping 70 percent of the purchase price, a far larger share than possible through wholesalers and retail stores.
The move created a new dynamic. Small companies and individuals could write apps and sell them for pennies -- literally -- in hopes that volume would make them some real money. Consumers could buy apps, or download free ones, on a whim. Only a few of the hundreds of thousands of apps Apple would sell ever made serious money, but thousands of developers wanted to take their shot at making their fortunes. It was the American dream, blown up to a global scale.
It was also controversial, because developers could only sell their software through Apple. Jobs had finally created something no one in consumer electronics had managed: a complete ecosystem, with control over hardware design and distribution of third-party software and content. Apple could create as close to the perfect user experience as was possible... something that Jobs had wanted for 30 years. But there were still some things he couldn't control.

Return of a Foe

Jobs fell ill again and took a medical leave in 2009 to deal with a "hormonal imbalance," according to Apple. In truth, his liver was dying and his life was in jeopardy. So Jobs had a secret liver transplant in Tennessee.
When the news finally came out, two months after the operation, the criticism was intense. Jobs had managed to get a donor liver in three months -- roughly three times faster than the average transplantee. Many investors were also angry that Apple had failed to acknowledge Jobs, the single most important man at the company, faced a life-threatening condition.
But Jobs had never been cowed by disease, and he refused to be deterred by words. There was still work to do.

A Computer for the Rest of Us

Jobs famously disdained market research. How could anyone know what features they'd want in a product they'd never seen before? And that's what the iPad was.
Not that the idea of tablet computers was new. But combining the iPhone's touch interface with a larger screen, the iPad gave consumers what they wanted: the ability to watch videos, surf the Web, read books and periodicals, listen to music -- all for hours on a single battery charge. Doubters, including some of the Mac Faithful, dismissed the concept. It wasn't a "real" computer. But Jobs knew what most people really wanted, and the doubters had to get in line.
Announced in Jan. 2010 and first shipped on April 3, the iPad became the most quickly adopted computer in history. The next month, Apple's market valuation finally surpassed that of its long-time rival and partner, Microsoft. The people had spoken, and Jobs had won.

The Consummate Rebel, Triumphant

Steven Paul Jobs: Driven. Perfectionist. Arrogant. Visionary. Genius. Complicated.

Love him or hate him, you cannot deny that he changed the world. Perhaps the most fitting words come from an Apple ad that ran shortly after his return to save the company:
Here's to the crazy ones. The misfits. Rebels. Troublemakers. Round pegs in the square holes. The ones who see things differently. They're not fond of rules, and they have no respect for the status quo. You can quote them, disagree with them, glorify or vilify them. About the only thing you can't do is ignore them. Because they change things. They push the human race forward. And while some may see them as the crazy ones, we see genius. Because the people who are crazy enough to think they can change the world are the ones who do.

Five Outlook nghtmares (and how to fix them)

Microsoft Office's email and calendar program shouldn't keep you up at night. Here's how to resolve five common frustrations.

Lincoln Spector

August 23, 2011 (PC World)
You use Microsoft Outlook to manage your email, your appointments, your contacts, and your to-do lists. In other words, you use it to manage your work life. So when this program doesn't behave the way its supposed to, you have a nightmare.
I'm here to help relieve you of those waking bad dreams. Following are solutions to five common but serious Microsoft Outlook problems. I'll tell you what to do if your data set has grown too large and cumbersome. I'll explain why you seem to be spamming your friends. I'll help you check your mail on more than one computer. And I'll show you how to back up and restore your Outlook data, as well as how to make Outlook contacts display the information you want to see.
These tips are for Outlook 2007 and 2010, although in their generalities -- if not their specifics -- theyll work with earlier versions, too.

Your Outlook data suddenly vanishes

Let's nip this nightmare in the bud, before it happens.
You keep a lot of information in your Outlook data file -- including your email messages, your contacts, and your appointments. If something destroys or corrupts that file, youre in trouble. And since Outlook handles its data files in its own unique way, your regular backup routine may not be protecting its data. (You do back up regularly, don't you?)
So you need to make sure that you're backing up your Outlook data. But first, you have to find that data.
You can do so in the Account Settings dialog box. To open it in Outlook 2007, select Tools, Account Settings. For version 2010, click the File tab, and then select the Info option in the left pane, followed by Account Settings, and Account Settings again. (Yes, I know that's redundant.)
Once youre in the dialog box, click the Data Files tab. Select your data file (probably Outlook.pst), and then click the Open Folder button (version 2007) or the Open File Location button (2010). Windows Explorer will open to your Outlook data folder.
With Outlook closed and the folder open, copy the contents of the folder to a safe location, such as an external hard drive. Better yet, make sure that your regular backup routine includes this folder.
When the nightmare hits and you've lost your data, here's how to restore it:
1. Reinstall Outlook and go through the setup wizard. This will create a new but empty data file.
2. Once Outlook is up and running, launch the Import and Export Wizard. In Outlook 2007, select File, Import and Export. In Outlook 2010, click the File tab and then the Open option on the left, and choose Import.
3. In the wizard, select Import from another program or file and click Next.
4. For the file type, for Outlook 2007, select Personal Folder File (.pst). For 2010, choose Outlook Data File (.pst).
5. On the wizards next page, click the Browse button and find the backed-up Outlook folder. Select the appropriate file (probably Outlook or Outlook.pst).
6. As you go through the rest of the wizard, select Personal Folders, make sure Include subfolders is checked, and click Finish to start importing your backed-up data.

Your Outlook data set is too big and cumbersome

If Outlook is slowing down, its probably time to shrink your Outlook.pst data file. By default Outlook 2007 can handle a 20GB data file, and Outlook 2010 can manage a 50GB one. You can increase those size limits -- but frankly, youll get better performance by decreasing the size of the actual file.
The previous tip described how to find and open the folder containing the file. Do so to check its current size, and to see how the size changes as you follow the suggestions below.
Start by compacting the file, which removes empty space. In Outlook 2007, select File, Data File Management. Select outlook.pst, and then click Settings. Click Compact Now. In Outlook 2010, click the File tab, and then select Info in the left pane. Click Account Settings, and Account Settings again. In the Account Settings dialog box, click the Data Files tab. Select the file and click Settings, Compact Now.
If that doesn't shrink the file sufficiently, try archiving, which moves old messages and appointments to another .pst tile (the default is archive.pst). You first need to reach the AutoArchive dialog box. In Outlook 2007, select Tools, Options. Click the Other tab, and then the AutoArchive button. In Outlook 2010, click the File tab, and then choose Options in the left pane. In the Outlook Options dialog box's left pane, click Advanced. Click the AutoArchive Settings button.
Once there, you'll find plenty of options for what to archive.
You can also start archiving now, rather than waiting for the next time it happens automatically. In Outlook 2007, select File, Archive. In 2010, click the File tab and select Info. Click the Cleanup Tools button, then Archive.
The program has other tools for cleaning up email. In Outlook 2007, select Tools, Mailbox Cleanup to find them. In Outlook 2010, click the File tab and select Info. Click the Cleanup Tools button, then Mailbox Cleanup.
After youve done everything you can to archive and clean up your data, your Outlook.pst file will remain the same size -- but it will have considerably more blank space. Compact it again to reap the benefits of your cleaning job.

You're apparently spamming your friends

Your contacts may be receiving unwanted mail that appears to be coming from you. Don't worry: You're not spamming people while in a hypnotized trance. And neither is your copy of Outlook.
Remember that your copy of Outlook and your email account have no real connection, other than the fact that you use one to access the other.
In all likelihood, your email account has been hijacked for spamming purposes. To get it back, try changing your password (and make your new password a strong password). If you succeed in changing the password, and if hijacking is the problem, you've just solved it.
But if you can't change your password, the account has definitely been hacked. Contact your email provider about how to reclaim it; Gmail, Hotmail, and Yahoo each outline the steps for reclaiming an account.
A hijacked account isn't the only possibility, however. A malware-infected PC with access to your email address may be part of a spam-spewing botnet.
It could even be your computer. To find out, scan your hard drive with one or more security utilities other than your regular antivirus program. Malwarebytes' Anti-Malware Free, SuperAntiSpyware Free Edition, and the AVG Rescue CD each do a good job.
If your computer isn't the culprit, then a friends PC is -- especially if the people receiving your spam all know one another. Malware can spoof (forge) any 'To' address in the outgoing spam, and typically it picks a random address from the infected PCs hard drive. If the friends who are complaining are all part of the same social circle, suggest that all of them check their PCs for malware.

Email on your office PC doesnt turn up at home

If you have Outlook installed on two computers, and you try to download mail on both of them, youll likely to run into problems. The mail you download to one copy of Outlook likely wont be available to download to the other.
You have solutions to choose from, but the simplest is to change the way Outlook accesses your mail. If you use the POP3 protocol (Outlook's default), Outlook will download your new mail and then delete the messages from your mail providers server. As a result, the messages aren't there anymore for you to download. You could tell Outlook not to delete the mail, but that causes its own problems.
The better solution is to switch to the much smarter IMAP protocol, which synchronizes the mail on the server with the mail in Outlook. That way, the messages will remain in sync on every computer you check them with (as well as on your smartphone).
You can't change the protocol on your existing account; youll have to create a new one. You can do so in the Account Settings dialog box. To get there in Outlook 2007, select Tools, Account Settings. In Outlook 2010, click the File tab, the Info option in the left pane, Account Settings, and Account Settings again.
Once there, choose the E-mail tab, and then click the New button. On the first page of the resulting wizard, check Manually configure server settings or additional server types. When you get to the page with all the other fields, be sure to select IMAP in the Account Type field. Check with your provider for other settings.
This tip works only if your email provider supports IMAP. Check with the provider to find out.

Those aren't the contact details you want

You check your contacts, but you don't see the specific information you need. Sure, you have everyone's name and phone number, but you can't see the city they live in without extra effort.
Here's how to change the contact fields that Outlook displays automatically. The directions differ entirely for Outlook 2007 and 2010.
Outlook 2007
In the left pane's Contacts section, under Current View, pick the view of your choice. If you don't find the perfect view, find the closest to what you prefer.
Once you've selected a view, scroll to the bottom of the list of views and click Customize Current View. In the resulting dialog box, click the Fields button to select which fields you want -- and don't want -- displayed, and in what order. You may find the other buttons in this dialog box helpful, as well.
Outlook 2010
Click the Ribbon's View tab, then Change View (the leftmost icon on the Ribbon). Select the view that's closest to what you want.
To make it exactly what you prefer, click View Settings (immediately to the right of Change View). In the resulting Advanced View Settings dialog box, click the Columns button (if the button is grayed out, try closing the dialog box, returning to Change View, and selecting another view). In the resulting Show Columns dialog box, you'll be able to select which fields to display, and in what order.
Back in the Advanced View Settings dialog box, you may find some of the other buttons useful, too.

A final note

In addition to the previous five nightmares, you may have some confusion about which Outlook software you're using. Maybe, for instance, you've heard that you can manage tasks and appointments in Outlook, but you cant find those features in the program.
This may make you feel a little silly, but the answer to this problem is easy: You've probably confused Outlook with another Microsoft program, Outlook Express. Outlook, the focus of this article, comes with Microsoft Office and handles contacts, email, calendars, and so on. Outlook Express last came with Windows XP, and all it does is email.
If youre using the right program -- and you're using it correctly -- the challenges of managing your email, your calendar, your contacts, and your to-do list shouldn't disturb your sleep. And a good night's rest can really improve your outlook on life.

Honey, I shrunk the Flughafen: German builds world’s largest model airport

Last updated at 5:13 PM on 4th May 2011

It took a grand total of six years to build but an incredible new miniature model, called Knuffingen Airport, based on Hamburg's airport, has finally opened to the public.
It's on display at Miniatur Wunderland, in Hamburg, and features 40 aircraft that take off and land and 90 vehicles that trundle around the runways automatically.
Making something this small and perfectly formed doesn't come cheap. It cost 3.5million Euros – but the result is plane-ly amazing.
The opening of the new miniature model Knuffingen Aiport at Miniatur Wunderland
Size doesn't matter: The opening of the new miniature model Knuffingen Aiport at Miniatur Wunderland

The real airport opened in 1911 and remains the oldest operational airport in the world. When it was first built it covered a mere 45 hectares – it's now ten times bigger and measures a whopping 2.2sq miles.

The various vehicles and planes on the model version are able to move around thanks to an innovative 'carsystem', which manoeuvres the vehicles by computer.
The planes even take off thanks to miniature wires that carry them off the end of the runway.
Miniature wonder: Knuffingen Airport
From up here, the planes look like ants: The aircraft are small, but perfectly formed

Knuffingen Airport
The longer you look at it, the more it's obvious why it took so many years to complete

Way to glow: Knuffingen Airport even lights up at night
Way to glow: Knuffingen Airport even lights up at night

The attention to detail is astounding. The planes park themselves and passenger walkways slowly move into place.
The tow trucks even feature little flashing orange lights and the petrol tanks can be seen indicating which way they are about to turn. What's more, the airport lights up spectacularly to create an entrancing night scene.
Watch a YouTube video of the incredible model below:

The airport opened at the 4th of May. Therefore we produced a clip with much more spectacular pictures. We recommend to watch the video about the finsihed airport.
We are also producing a general video about the whole layout these days. It will be published very soon. Follow our youtube-channel and get an information, whenever a new video is published

Im Miniatur Wunderland wird seit einigen Jahren an einem neuen Großprojekt getüftelt. Ein 150m² großer Flughafenabschnitt wird die Anlage erweitern. Der Testbetrieb ist zurzeit in vollem Gange. Noch läuft nicht alles wie es soll, aber hier sehen Sie erste Bilder, die in den letzten Wochen im Miniatur Wunderland entstanden sind.